Who are the culprits of political violence in Somalia?

Often, there is limited reliable news from Somalia because global main stream media is not present in Somalia to report. Somalia is difficult place that journalist to operate and report. Sadly, several journalists were abducted or killed in the past. Local journalists experience for harassment, threats and imprisonment on daily bases from different political actors in Somalia.

Reports indicated that political violence are involved  for Somali federal government including federal states and supporters of the federal government such as USA , European union, African Union Mission to Somalia ( AMISOM), Kenyan defence forces and Ethiopian troops.

Federal government and federal states allegedly committed political violence towards to Al-shabaab insurgent and civilians. For instance, Military courts carry out death sentence to suspects of Al-shabaab insurgent.  Also, inhumane treatment of suspects and prisoners were reported in the federal government and federal states. Federal government and federal states army collect illegal tax from civilian by gunpoint mainly in the Southern part of Somalia.

USA army has been carrying out drone attacks and special force raids against Al-shabaab insurgents but a lot of civilians were killed or injured in the process. For example, Bariire incident, American special force raid killed and injured several civilians allegedly. Similarly, American drone attacks killed or injured number civilians over the years in Southern Somalia.

Both, USA and European Union has been financing for AMISOM and Federal government of Somalia to fight against Al-shabaab insurgent.

African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) committed crimes against humanity in Somalia allegedly. Reports indicated that AMISOM troops committed rape and sexual exploitation against vulnerable Somali women. Also, AMISOM carried out collective punishment against Somali civilians in Marka, Barawe, Kismayo, Baydhawa and elsewhere in Southern Somalia.

Kenyan and Ethiopian troops are part of African Union Mission to Somalia but also carry out operations against Al-shabaab separately. Kenyan air force has been carrying out air raids over years in Gedo and Lower Juba regions targeting Al- Shabaab but in this process a lot of civilians were killed or injured. Occasions, Ethiopian troops cross the border and carry out massacre against the civilians allegedly. Evidence showed that Kenyan and Ethiopian troops have committed crimes against humanity such as massacre, displacement and rape in Somalia.

On the other hand, reports indicated that political violence is involved for Al-shabaab insurgent who wants to overthrow federal government and establish Sharia law in Somalia. Al-shabaab political violence is widely reported by global main stream media. Often, Al-shabaab claims responsibility suicide bombings and other killing towards federal government security forces and other government employees. In this process, a lot of civilians were killed or injured. Also, Al- Shabaab claims responsibility for sentencing to death suspects of espionage and other cases.

Now, the future of Somalia depends to end political violence and start dialogue between Somali government and Al-shabaab insurgent. Foreign troops must leave without conditions. International community needs to facilitate peaceful means of ending conflict but it has to be neutral mediator.

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