The Somali conflict is characterised by a multifaceted array of causes and drivers that including political, economic, cultural and psychological. Various peripheral and internal actors have played different roles during the various stages of the conflict. The lawlessness in Somalia not only affects the people within Somalia but it also has a number of negative and positive effects on the neighbouring countries.
The political failures and instability are directly to blame for Somali leadership, Somali sectarian Politian and indirectly for USA foreign policy, Kenya and Ethiopia.
Somali people never had opportunity to choose their leaders since the Somali nation state was established in 1960s. Post European scramble, there were relative stability in Somalia for period of 25 years. During this period, Somali leadership never built institutions and viable public services to govern the country. It was authoritarian rule and military dictatorship which collapsed in 1991 due to poor governance.
The current conflict is to blame directly Somali leadership and sectarian Politian who are incompetent and unable to lead the country out of the current situation. Also, current Somali leaders are dishonest, corrupted, self-serving and puppet.
American foreign policy is also to blame for current instability in Somalia. It is based on containment and counter terrorism policy which militarises in the region. American hegemony prefers for Kenya and Ethiopia in the region. For instance, USA supports and arms Ethiopian defence which have committed atrocities in the region.
Both, Kenya and Ethiopia are historical foe for Somalia due to annexation Somali territories- NFD and Ogaden respectively. Both countries have been invading and intervening for internal affairs of Somalia since Somali state collapsed in 1991.
The way forward to resolve conflict is that Somali intellectuals to stand up and come up solutions to resolve for decades instability in Somalia. Any solution must be Somali lead and Somali owned. The unity and sovereignty of Somalia must not be negotiable. On these bases, International community could help Somali people to rebuild their country.